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发布时间: 2021年05月20日

高一英语语法之倒装句讲解

  倒装句分为全部倒装和部分倒装

  1 倒装句之全部倒装

  全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:

  1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run等表示来去或状态的动词。例如:

  Then came the chairman. 那时总裁来了。

  Here is your letter. 你的信。

  2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。例如:

  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机肚底下窜出一枚导弹。

  Ahead sat an old woman. 前面坐着一个老妪。

  注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。例如:

  Here he comes. 他来了。

  Away they went. 他们走开了。

  2 倒装句之部分倒装

  部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句子的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

  1. 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。例如:

  Never have I seen such a performance. 从未见过如此糟糕的表演。

  Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 无论如何你不会找到这个问题的答案的。

  Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 母亲一直到孩子入睡后离开房间。

  当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。例如:

  I have never seen such a performance.

  The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.

  典型例题

  1) Why can't I smoke here?

  At no timezdcms__ in the meeting-room

  A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted

  C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit

  答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

  2) Not until the early years of the 19th century zdcms__ what heat is.

  A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn't man know  D. did man know

  答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。

  改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。

  3 以否定词开头作部分倒装

  如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than等,要倒装。例如:

  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. 他没有收下礼物,还狠狠批评了送礼的人。

  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她刚出门,就有个学生来访。

  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她刚出门,就有个学生来访。

  典型例题

  No soonerzdcms__ than it began to rain heavily.

  A. the game began      B. has the game begun

  C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun

  答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

  注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构,如Not only you but also I am fond of music。

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